# Bitwise operations API documentation

Version: stable

Lua BitOp is a C extension module for Lua 5.1/5.2 which adds bitwise operations on numbers.

Lua BitOp is Copyright © 2008-2012 Mike Pall. Lua BitOp is free software, released under the MIT license (same license as the Lua core).

Lua BitOp is compatible with the built-in bitwise operations in LuaJIT 2.0 and is used on platforms where Defold runs without LuaJIT.

For clarity the examples assume the definition of a helper function `printx()`. This prints its argument as an unsigned 32 bit hexadecimal number on all platforms:

```function printx(x)
print("0x"..bit.tohex(x))
end
```
FUNCTION
bit.arshift()

bitwise arithmetic right-shift

bit.band()

bitwise and

bit.bnot()

bitwise not

bit.bor()

bitwise or

bit.bswap()

bitwise swap

bit.bxor()

bitwise xor

bit.lshift()

bitwise logical left-shift

bit.rol()

bitwise left rotation

bit.ror()

bitwise right rotation

bit.rshift()

bitwise logical right-shift

bit.tobit()

normalize number to the numeric range for bit operations

bit.tohex()

convert number to a hex string

## Functions

#### bit.arshift()

`bit.arshift(x,n)`

Returns the bitwise arithmetic right-shift of its first argument by the number of bits given by the second argument. Arithmetic right-shift treats the most-significant bit as a sign bit and replicates it. Only the lower 5 bits of the shift count are used (reduces to the range [0..31]).

PARAMETERS

 `x` number number `n` number number of bits

RETURNS

 `y` number bitwise arithmetic right-shifted number

EXAMPLES

```print(bit.arshift(256, 8))           --> 1
print(bit.arshift(-256, 8))          --> -1
printx(bit.arshift(0x87654321, 12))  --> 0xfff87654
```

#### bit.band()

`bit.band(x1,[x2...])`

Returns the bitwise and of all of its arguments. Note that more than two arguments are allowed.

PARAMETERS

 `x1` number number `[x2...]` number number(s)

RETURNS

 `y` number bitwise and of the provided arguments

EXAMPLES

```printx(bit.band(0x12345678, 0xff))        --> 0x00000078
```

#### bit.bnot()

`bit.bnot(x)`

Returns the bitwise not of its argument.

PARAMETERS

 `x` number number

RETURNS

 `y` number bitwise not of number x

EXAMPLES

```print(bit.bnot(0))            --> -1
printx(bit.bnot(0))           --> 0xffffffff
print(bit.bnot(-1))           --> 0
print(bit.bnot(0xffffffff))   --> 0
printx(bit.bnot(0x12345678))  --> 0xedcba987
```

#### bit.bor()

`bit.bor(x1,[x2...])`

Returns the bitwise or of all of its arguments. Note that more than two arguments are allowed.

PARAMETERS

 `x1` number number `[x2...]` number number(s)

RETURNS

 `y` number bitwise or of the provided arguments

EXAMPLES

```print(bit.bor(1, 2, 4, 8))                --> 15
```

#### bit.bswap()

`bit.bswap(x)`

Swaps the bytes of its argument and returns it. This can be used to convert little-endian 32 bit numbers to big-endian 32 bit numbers or vice versa.

PARAMETERS

 `x` number number

RETURNS

 `y` number bitwise swapped number

EXAMPLES

```printx(bit.bswap(0x12345678)) --> 0x78563412
printx(bit.bswap(0x78563412)) --> 0x12345678
```

#### bit.bxor()

`bit.bxor(x1,[x2...])`

Returns the bitwise xor of all of its arguments. Note that more than two arguments are allowed.

PARAMETERS

 `x1` number number `[x2...]` number number(s)

RETURNS

 `y` number bitwise xor of the provided arguments

EXAMPLES

```printx(bit.bxor(0xa5a5f0f0, 0xaa55ff00))  --> 0x0ff00ff0
```

#### bit.lshift()

`bit.lshift(x,n)`

Returns the bitwise logical left-shift of its first argument by the number of bits given by the second argument. Logical shifts treat the first argument as an unsigned number and shift in 0-bits. Only the lower 5 bits of the shift count are used (reduces to the range [0..31]).

PARAMETERS

 `x` number number `n` number number of bits

RETURNS

 `y` number bitwise logical left-shifted number

EXAMPLES

```print(bit.lshift(1, 0))              --> 1
print(bit.lshift(1, 8))              --> 256
print(bit.lshift(1, 40))             --> 256
printx(bit.lshift(0x87654321, 12))   --> 0x54321000
```

#### bit.rol()

`bit.rol(x,n)`

Returns the bitwise left rotation of its first argument by the number of bits given by the second argument. Bits shifted out on one side are shifted back in on the other side. Only the lower 5 bits of the rotate count are used (reduces to the range [0..31]).

PARAMETERS

 `x` number number `n` number number of bits

RETURNS

 `y` number bitwise left-rotated number

EXAMPLES

```printx(bit.rol(0x12345678, 12))   --> 0x45678123
```

#### bit.ror()

`bit.ror(x,n)`

Returns the bitwise right rotation of its first argument by the number of bits given by the second argument. Bits shifted out on one side are shifted back in on the other side. Only the lower 5 bits of the rotate count are used (reduces to the range [0..31]).

PARAMETERS

 `x` number number `n` number number of bits

RETURNS

 `y` number bitwise right-rotated number

EXAMPLES

```printx(bit.ror(0x12345678, 12))   --> 0x67812345
```

#### bit.rshift()

`bit.rshift(x,n)`

Returns the bitwise logical right-shift of its first argument by the number of bits given by the second argument. Logical shifts treat the first argument as an unsigned number and shift in 0-bits. Only the lower 5 bits of the shift count are used (reduces to the range [0..31]).

PARAMETERS

 `x` number number `n` number number of bits

RETURNS

 `y` number bitwise logical right-shifted number

EXAMPLES

```print(bit.rshift(256, 8))            --> 1
print(bit.rshift(-256, 8))           --> 16777215
printx(bit.rshift(0x87654321, 12))   --> 0x00087654
```

#### bit.tobit()

`bit.tobit(x)`

Normalizes a number to the numeric range for bit operations and returns it. This function is usually not needed since all bit operations already normalize all of their input arguments.

PARAMETERS

 `x` number number to normalize

RETURNS

 `y` number normalized number

EXAMPLES

```print(0xffffffff)                --> 4294967295 (*)
print(bit.tobit(0xffffffff))     --> -1
printx(bit.tobit(0xffffffff))    --> 0xffffffff
print(bit.tobit(0xffffffff + 1)) --> 0
print(bit.tobit(2^40 + 1234))    --> 1234
```

(*) See the treatment of hex literals for an explanation why the printed numbers in the first two lines differ (if your Lua installation uses a double number type).

#### bit.tohex()

`bit.tohex(x,n)`

Converts its first argument to a hex string. The number of hex digits is given by the absolute value of the optional second argument. Positive numbers between 1 and 8 generate lowercase hex digits. Negative numbers generate uppercase hex digits. Only the least-significant 4*|n| bits are used. The default is to generate 8 lowercase hex digits.

PARAMETERS

 `x` number number to convert `n` number number of hex digits to return

RETURNS

 `s` string hexadecimal string

EXAMPLES

```print(bit.tohex(1))              --> 00000001
print(bit.tohex(-1))             --> ffffffff
print(bit.tohex(0xffffffff))     --> ffffffff
print(bit.tohex(-1, -8))         --> FFFFFFFF
print(bit.tohex(0x21, 4))        --> 0021
print(bit.tohex(0x87654321, 4))  --> 4321
```