Native extensions

If you need custom interaction with external software or hardware on a low level where Lua won’t suffice, the Defold SDK allows you to write extensions to the engine in C, C++, Objective C, Java or Javascript, depending on target platform. Typical use cases for native extensions are:

  • Interaction with specific hardware, for instance the camera on mobile phones.
  • Interaction with external low level APIs, for instance advertising network APIs that do not allow interaction through network APIs where Luasocket could be used.
  • High performance calculations and data processing.

The build platform

Defold provides a zero setup entry point to native extensions with a cloud based build solution. Any native extension that is developed and added to a game project becomes part of the ordinary project content. There is no need to build special versions of the engine and distribute them to team members, that is handled automatically—any team member that builds and runs the project will get a project specific engine executable with all native extensions baked in.

Cloud build

Project layout

To create a new extension, create a folder in the project root. This folder will contain all settings, source code, libraries and resources associated with the extension. The extension builder recognizes the folder structure and collects any source files and libraries.

Project layout

The extension folder must contain an ext.manifest file. This file is a YAML format file that is picked up by the extension builder. A minimal manifest file should contain the name of the extension.
This folder should contain all source code files.
This optional folder contains any include files.
This optional folder contains any compiled libraries that the extension depends on. Library files should be placed in subfolders named by platform, or architecure-platform, depending on what architectures are supported by your libraries.

Supported platforms are ios, android, osx, win32, linux, web.

Supported arc-platform pairs are armv7-ios, arm64-ios, x86_64-ios, armv7-android, arm64-android, x86-osx, x86_64-osx, x86-win32, x86_64-win32, x86_64-linux, js-web and wasm-web.

This optional folder contains any extra resources that the extension depends on. Resource files should be placed in subfolders named by platform, or architecure-platform just as the “lib” subfolders. A subfolder common is also allowed, containing resource files common for all platforms.

Sharing an extension

Extensions are treated just like any other assets in your project and they can be shared in the same way. If a native extension folder is added as a Library folder it can be shared and used by others as a project dependency. Refer to the Library project manual for more information.

A simple example extension

Let’s build a very simple extension. First, we create a new root folder myextension and add a file ext.manifest containing the name of the extension “MyExtension”. Note that the name is a C++ symbol and must match the first argument to DM_DECLARE_EXTENSION (see below).


# C++ symbol in your extension
name: "MyExtension"

The extension consists of a single C++ file, myextension.cpp that is created in the “src” folder.

C++ file

The extension source file contains the following code:

// myextension.cpp
// Extension lib defines
#define LIB_NAME "MyExtension"
#define MODULE_NAME "myextension"

// include the Defold SDK
#include <dmsdk/sdk.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

static int Rot13(lua_State* L)
    int top = lua_gettop(L);

    // Check and get parameter string from stack
    const char* str = luaL_checkstring(L, 1);

    // Allocate new string
    int len = strlen(str);
    char *rot = (char *) malloc(len + 1);

    // Iterate over the parameter string and create rot13 string
    for(int i = 0; i <= len; i++) {
        const char c = str[i];
        if((c >= 'A' && c <= 'M') || (c >= 'a' && c <= 'm')) {
            // Between A-M just add 13 to the char.
            rot[i] = c + 13;
        } else if((c >= 'N' && c <= 'Z') || (c >= 'n' && c <= 'z')) {
            // If rolling past 'Z' which happens below 'M', wrap back (subtract 13)
            rot[i] = c - 13;
        } else {
            // Leave character intact
            rot[i] = c;

    // Put the rotated string on the stack
    lua_pushstring(L, rot);

    // Free string memory. Lua has a copy by now.

    // Assert that there is one item on the stack.
    assert(top + 1 == lua_gettop(L));

    // Return 1 item
    return 1;

// Functions exposed to Lua
static const luaL_reg Module_methods[] =
    {"rot13", Rot13},
    {0, 0}

static void LuaInit(lua_State* L)
    int top = lua_gettop(L);

    // Register lua names
    luaL_register(L, MODULE_NAME, Module_methods);

    lua_pop(L, 1);
    assert(top == lua_gettop(L));

dmExtension::Result AppInitializeMyExtension(dmExtension::AppParams* params)
    return dmExtension::RESULT_OK;

dmExtension::Result InitializeMyExtension(dmExtension::Params* params)
    // Init Lua
    printf("Registered %s Extension\n", MODULE_NAME);
    return dmExtension::RESULT_OK;

dmExtension::Result AppFinalizeMyExtension(dmExtension::AppParams* params)
    return dmExtension::RESULT_OK;

dmExtension::Result FinalizeMyExtension(dmExtension::Params* params)
    return dmExtension::RESULT_OK;

// Defold SDK uses a macro for setting up extension entry points:
// DM_DECLARE_EXTENSION(symbol, name, app_init, app_final, init, update, on_event, final)

// MyExtension is the C++ symbol that holds all relevant extension data.
// It must match the name field in the `ext.manifest`
DM_DECLARE_EXTENSION(MyExtension, LIB_NAME, AppInitializeMyExtension, AppFinalizeMyExtension, InitializeMyExtension, 0, 0, FinalizeMyExtension)

Note the macro DM_DECLARE_EXTENSION that is used to declare the various entry points into the extension code. The first argument symbol must match the name specified in ext.manifest. For this simple example, there is no need for any “update” or “on_event” entry points, so 0 is provided in those locations to the macro.

Now it is just a matter of building the project (Project ▸ Build and Launch). This will upload the extension to the extension builder which will produce a custom engine with the new extension included. If the builder encounters any errors, a dialog with the build errors will show.

To test the extension, create a game object and add a script component with some test code:

local s = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ"
local rot_s = myextension.rot13(s)
print(rot_s) --> nopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmNOPQRSTUVWXYZABCDEFGHIJKLM

And that’s it! We have created a fully working native extension.

Defined platform identifiers

The following identifiers are defined by the builder on each respective platform:


The ext.manifest file

Apart from the name of the extension, the manifest file can contain platform specific compile flags, link flags, libs and frameworks. If the ext.manifest file does not contain a “platforms” segment, or a platform is missing from the list, the platform you bundle for will still build, but without any extra flags set.

Here is an example:

name: "AdExtension"

            frameworks: ["CoreGraphics", "CFNetwork", "GLKit", "CoreMotion", "MessageUI", "MediaPlayer", "StoreKit", "MobileCoreServices", "AdSupport", "AudioToolbox", "AVFoundation", "CoreGraphics", "CoreMedia", "CoreMotion", "CoreTelephony", "CoreVideo", "Foundation", "GLKit", "JavaScriptCore", "MediaPlayer", "MessageUI", "MobileCoreServices", "OpenGLES", "SafariServices", "StoreKit", "SystemConfiguration", "UIKit", "WebKit"]
            flags:      ["-stdlib=libc++"]
            linkFlags:  ["-ObjC"]
            libs:       ["z", "c++", "sqlite3"]
            defines:    ["MY_DEFINE"]

            frameworks: ["CoreGraphics", "CFNetwork", "GLKit", "CoreMotion", "MessageUI", "MediaPlayer", "StoreKit", "MobileCoreServices", "AdSupport", "AudioToolbox", "AVFoundation", "CoreGraphics", "CoreMedia", "CoreMotion", "CoreTelephony", "CoreVideo", "Foundation", "GLKit", "JavaScriptCore", "MediaPlayer", "MessageUI", "MobileCoreServices", "OpenGLES", "SafariServices", "StoreKit", "SystemConfiguration", "UIKit", "WebKit"]
            flags:      ["-stdlib=libc++"]
            linkFlags:  ["-ObjC"]
            libs:       ["z", "c++", "sqlite3"]
            defines:    ["MY_DEFINE"]

Allowed keys

Allowed keys are for platform specific compile flags are:

  • frameworks - Apple frameworks to include when building (iOS and OSX)
  • flags - Flags that should be passed to the compiler
  • linkFlags - Flags that should be passed to the linker
  • libs - Libraries to include when linking
  • defines - Defines to set when building
  • aaptExtraPackages - Extra package name that should be generated (Android)
  • aaptExcludePackages - Regexp (or exact names) of packages to exclude (Android)
  • aaptExcludeResourceDirs - Regexp (or exact names) of resource dirs to exclude (Android)

Example extensions

The Defold asset portal also contain several native extensions.